British Eighteenth-Century Chemical Terms - Part 3


Dictionary Table of Contents Dictionary - Part 1 (A-H) Dictionary - Part 2 (I-R)

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Sacchareted Lime
Calcium oxalate (CaC2O4).
Saccharum Saturni
Lead acetate (Pb(C2H3O2)2).
A range of orange-yellow colors. The color called saffron comes from the dye of the same name, which is an extract of the plant Crocus sativus.
Saffron of Gold.
See Aurum Fulminans.
Saffron of Iron.
See Saffron of Mars.
Saffron of Mars
Any yellowish iron compound, e.g., hydrated ferroso ferric oxide (Fe3O4 . xH2O) or ferric sulfide (Fe2S3).
Saffron of Metal
A mixture of antimony sulfide (Sb2S3), nitre (KNO3), and antimony sulfate (Sb2(SO4)3).
Sal Absinthi (Salt of Wormwood)
Mostly potassium carbonate (K2CO3).
Sal Albus
Borax (sodium tetraborate) (Na2B4O7 . 10H2O).
Sal Alkali Vitriolatum
Potassium sulfate (K2SO4).
Sal Alkanus Vegetablis
Potassium carbonate (K2CO3).
Sal Amarum
Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4).
Sal Ammoniac (Sal Armoniac)
Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl). Sometimes used for other ammonium salts.
Sal Ammoniacum Fixum
Calcium chloride (CaCl2)
Sal Ammoniacum Volatilis
A term variously used for any salt solution that gave off the odor of ammonia. When referring to solid salts the term meant ammonium carbonate ((NH4)2CO3).
Sal Anglicum (Epsom Salt)
Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4).
Sal Catharticum
Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4).
Sal Catharticum Amarum
Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4).
Sal Catholicum
Potassium sulfate (K2SO4).
Sal de Duobus
Potassium sulfate (K2SO4).
Sal de Seignette (Sal de Soinette)
See Seignetteís Salt.
Sal Digestiv
Potassium chloride (KCl).
Sal di Modena
Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4).
Sal Diureticus
Potassium acetate (KC2H3O2).
Sal Duplicatum
Potassium sulphate (K2SO4).
Sal Enixum
Potassium sulfate (K2SO4).
Sal Epsom (Epsom Salt)
Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4).
Sales Medii
See Sal Medium.
Sales Salsi
See Sal Salsam.
Sal gemme (Sal Gem)
Sodium chloride (NaCl).
Sal Gentianae
Mostly potassium carbonate (K2CO3).
Sal Glauber (Glauberís salt)
Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4).
Sal Guaiaci ex Ligno
Mostly potassium carbonate (K2CO3).
Saline Bodies (Cullen)
Substances which are (a) sapid, (b) miscible with water, and (c) noninflammable.
Salited Earths, Metals, etc.
Chlorides (Cl¯).
Sal Juniperi
Mostly potassium carbonate (K2CO3).
Sal Kali (Sodium Carbonate)
Soda (Na2CO3).
Sal Marinus
Sea Salt; mostly sodium chloride (NaCl).
Sal Marinus Fontan
Sodium chloride (NaCl) as found in or near landlocked bodies of water.
Sal Marinus Regeneratus
Potassium chloride (KCl).
Sal Martis
Ferrous sulfate (FeSO4).
Sal Medium (Sal Salsum) (Sales Medii)
Any neutral salt that would not precipitate solutions made with acid or alkaline slats and would not change the color of syrup of violets.
See Salt Ammoniac.
Sal Mirabile (Glauber's salt)
Sodium sulphate (Na2SO4).
Sal Nitriforme Inflammable
Probably ammonium nitrate ((NH4)NO3).
Sal Nitrii
Potassium nitrate (KNO3).
Sal Perlatum
Sodium phosphate (Na2PO4).
Sal Polychrestrum
Potassium sulphate (K2SO4).
Sal Polychrestrum Anglorum (Sal Polychrestrum Glaseri)
Potassium sulphate (K2SO4).
Sal Polychrestrum de Rochelle
See Sal Polychrestrum de Seignette.
Sal Polychrestrum de Seignette
Potassium sodium tartrate (NaKC4H4O6).
Sal Polychrestrum e Nitro et Sulphure
Potassium sulfate (K2SO4).
Sal Polychrestrum Glaseri
Potassium sulfate (K2SO4).
Sal Prunellae
A mixutre of potassium nitrate and potassium sulfate (KNO3; K2SO4).
Sal Rupellensis (Rochelle Salt)
Hydrated potassium sodium tartrate (KNaC4H4O6 .4H2O).
Sal Salsam
Any neutral combination of anacid with alkali. (see also Neutral Salts, Sal Medium, or Salts.)
Sal Sapientiae
Potassium sulfate (K2SO4).
Sal Saturni
Lead acetate (PbC2H3O2).
Sal Sedivatus (Sedative Salt)
Boracic boric acid, (H3BO3).
Sal Sennerti
Potassium acetate (KC2H3O2).
Sal Soda (Salt Soda, Soda)
Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3).
Sal Succini (Salt of Amber)
Succinic acid (HO2CCH2CH2CO2H).
In the 16th and 17th centuries this term denoted a group of solid soluble, nonimflammable substances with characteristic tastes. In the 18th century salts gradually became to be thought of in terms of process, as, for example, the product of the reaction between acids and bases, acids and other salts, or between two salts, etc. Some chemists regarded acids and bases themselves as salts or at least some saline substances. In general, salts were increasingly recognized as the largest and most important class of substances as the eighteenth century progressed.
Salt Alembroth
A mixture of equal parts of corrosive sublimate (mercuric chloride, HgCl2) and sal ammoniac (NH4Cl). Used as a flux for metals.
Sal Tartari
Potassium carbonate (K2CO3). It usually was produced by strongly heating tartar.
Salt Ash
Magnesium chloride (MgCl2).
Salt of Amber
Succinic acid (C4H6O4).
Salt of Art
See Salt Alembroth.
Salt of Benzoin
Benzoic acid (C6H5COOH).
Salt of Centaury
Solid residues obtained from the calcination of any of the plant species of the genus Centaurea.
Salt of Chalk
Calcium acetate (Ca(C2H3O2)2).
Salt of Colcothar
Probably impure ferric hydroxide(Fe(OH)3).
Salt of Coral
Calcium acetate (Ca(C2H3O2)2).
Salt of Crab's Eye
Calcium acetate (Ca(C2H3O2)2).
Salt of England
Ammonium carbonate ((NH4)2CO3).
Salt of Epsom
See Epsom Salt.
Salt of Gall-Nuts
Tannic acid (C76H52O46).
Salt of Glass
A mixture of the various salts found in raw materials used in glassmaking. These included fixed alkali (potassium carbonate), common salt (sodium chloride), Glauber's salt (sodium sulfate), vitriolate tartar (potassium sulfate), etc.
Salt of Hartshorn
Ammonium carbonate ((NH4)2CO3).
Salt of Human Blood
A mixture if ammonium salts, including ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH), and various organic solids.
Salt of Lead (Sugar of Lead) (Sal Saturn)
Lead acetate (Pb(C2H3O2)2).
Salt of Lime
Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitated from limewater (calcium hydroxide solution, Ca(OH)2) by a carbonate compound.
Salt of Mars
Most often used for ferrous sulfate (FeSO4). Occasionally used as a general term for any iron salt and as a specific name for ferrous acetate (Fe(C2H3O2)2).
Salt of Milk
Probably calcium lactate (Ca(C3H5O3)2).
Salt of Oxbone
Impure ammonium salts from bone extracts of cattle (NH4OH).
Salt of Science
See Salt Alembroth.
Salt of Sedlitz
See Sedlitz Salt. (Sometimes sedlitz salt was confused with Glauber's salt.)
Salt of Soda
See Soda.
Salt of Sorrel
Acid potassium oxylate (KHC2O4).
Salt of Steel
Loosely applied to various iron salts. Most commonly applied to martial vitriol. (Ferrous Sulfate; FeSO4).
Salt of Sulphur
Impure potassium sulfate (K2SO4).
Salt of Sylvius (Febrifugal Salt of Sylvius)
Potassium chloride (KCl).
Salt of Tachenius
Impure potassium and sodium carbonates (K2CO3, Na2CO3) obtained from the incomplete combustion of plant products. These salts contained organic impurities.
Salt of Tartar
Potassium carbonate (K2CO3).
Salt of Urine
Impure ammonium salts extracted from urine.
Salt of Vinegar
Impure potassium sulfate. Probably mixed with acetates and citrates.
Salt of Wisdom
See Salt Alembroth.
Salt of Wormwood
Mostly potassium carbonate (K2CO3).
Sal Vitrioli
Ferrous sulfate (FeSO4).
Sal Volatile Fixatum
Ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4).
Sal Volatile Oleosi
Any solid extracted from animals or vegetable matter containing ammonium salts, e.g., salts of hartshorn, etc.
(1) See Realgar; (2) a resin from the tree Callitris quadrivalvis.
Sadniver (Glass Gall)
A solution containing a mixture of salts found on the surface of glass after vitrification.
See Sapphire.
To have a decided, yet pleasant taste.
To be soapy, slippery, sometimes foaming.
A clear blue gem material which is like ruby, a crystalline form of alumina. ( Al2O3
A gum resin imported form the Middle East.
The roots of plants of the family smilaceae from which gummy and resious extracts are obtained.
A term applied both to the reee Sassafras officinale and to its bark when dried and prepared.
The action by which a "perfect" union between an acid and an alkali is accomplished. Its product is a neutral salt.
Saturn (of Saturn)
Used in referring to lead or to compounds containing lead.
See Red Saunders.
A gummy, resinous juice from the root of the plant Convolvulvus scammonia.
Scheele's Green
Cupric hydrogen arsenite (CuHAsO3).
A black mineral. Now known as a variety of tourmaline.
Schwartz Blei Weiss (Black White-Lead)
Plumago (graphite) (CN).
The plant Teucrium scordium from which gummy and resious extracts are obtained. It has an odor of garlic.
The undesirable solid residues or slag which remain after a metal has been separated from an ore.
Any process which produces scoria or slag. Sometimes used for processes which ield metal or semimetals. Scorifiation usually involved the addition of other substances to the ore, then heating.
Secret Fixed Sulphur of the Philosophers
Calcined residue when sulphur is distilled with linseed oil.
Secret Sal Ammoniac (Glauber's Secret Sal Ammoniac)
Ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4)).
Sedative Salt
Usually boric acid, but sometimes sodium tetraborate (Na2B4O7).
Sedative Spar
Calcium borate (CaB4O7).
Sedlitz Salt (Epsom Salt)
Magnesium Sulphate (MgSO4).
Seignette's Salt
Sodium potassium tartrate (Rochelle's salt) (NaKC4H4O6).
The various minerals forms of Calcium sulphate (CaSO4).
Selenitic Spar
Any mineral assigned to the family of "spars" that could be calcined like gypsum (CaSO4 . 2H2O).
Substances which have the properties characteristic of metals except for ductility and which sublime. Different chemists had different lists, but most included antimony (Sb), arsenic (As); bismuth (Bi), cobalt (Co), and Zinc (Zn). Some included mercury (Hg) and, later in the century, nickel (Ni).
Sena (Senna)
Several similar plants of the genus Cassia from the leaves of which gummy and resinous extracts were obtained.
A gum extract from the root of the North American species Polygala senega.
See Sena.
A vessel narrow at the top, then bellying out in the center, and narrowing again to a hollow tube or stem. Shaped somewhat like the modern spearatory funnel anbd often used for similiar purposes.
A steatite, usually green.
When crystals appeared, especially suddenly in a saturated solution, they were said to "shoot".
Iron phosphide (Fe3P).
Silicon dioxide (SiO2).
Silicious Earth (Silcia)
Silicon dioxide (SiO2).
A copper zinc alloy with a color approximating that of real gold.
Slaked Lime
Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2).
A blue, glassy substance used as a pigment. The blue comes from cobaltous oxide (CuO). Smalt also contains silica (SiO2).
The process opf extracting a metal from its ore.
Smo(a)king Spirit of Libavius
Primarily stannous chloride (SnCl2) but with chlorides of mercury mixed in.
Smo(a)king Spirit of Nitre
Concentrated nitric acid (HNO3).
Snow of Antimony
See Flowers of Antimony.
In general, any chemical combination of acids, bases, or salts with oils that exhibit detergent action. Common soap was the product of sodium hydroxide with an oil or fat.
Soap of Glass
Manganese dioxide (MnO2) in its role of agent to remove color bodies from glass while the glass is molten.
See Steatites.
See Steatite
Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3)
Soda Baryllia (Spanish)
Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3)
Soda Hispanica (Washing Soda)
Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3)
Any fusible metal alloy used for joining two pieces of metal. Most types were alloys of tin and lead.
Soluble Tartar
Normal potassium tartrate. Probably (K2C4H4O6)
Any liquid in which one component called the "solute" is dispersed in a second component called the "solvent."
Solvend ( Cullen)
Carbon and hydrocarbon deposits from incomplete combustion of fuels.
Various plants of the genus Rumex from which an acid salt (acid potassium acetate) was extracted.
Spanish Earth
Vitriols (mixture) (CuSO4; FeSO4).
Spanish Green
Basic copper carbonate (2CuCO3 . Cu(OH) 2).
Spanish White
Bismuth oxychloride (or oxynitrate) (BiOCl; BiONO3
A class of compounds characterized by a crystalline form that features shiny reflective plate surfaces.
Spath (Spat) Stone
A naturally occurring mineral solid containing mostly calcium sulfate (CaSO4).
Spathic Iron Ore
Ferrous carbonate (FeCO3)
Specificum Purgans Paracelsi
Potassium sulfate (K2SO4)
The white fatty substance obtained from the head of the sperm whale. Used in pharmaceuticals and candles.
The aromatic extract from the Indian plant Nardostachys jalamansi. The term was also used for the plant itself.
(1) Any liquor obtained from another substance by distillation; (2) later, any subtle substance dissolved in another substance. The concept gradually veered ttoward what we now call the gaseous state.
Sp. Ammon. Cum Calce Viva
Ammonium carbonate ((NH4)2CO3).
Spirit Ammon. Sal. Vol.
Mostly ammonium carbonate ((NH4)2CO3).
Spirit of Alum
Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) obtained from the destructive distillation of alum (KAl(SO4)2 . 12H2O).
Spirit of Hartshorn
Strong solution of ammonia produced by the distillation of hartshorn (NH4O4).
Spirit of Libavius
Stannic cholride (SnCl4).
Spirit of Mindererus
Ammonium acetate solution (NH4(C2H3O2).
Spirit of Wine
Ethanol (ethyl alcohol) (C2H5OH).
Spiritus Aceti
The acetic acid (HC2H3O2) obtained from distilling any fermented material which produces this acid, e.g., vinegar.
Spiritus Beguini
Ammonium polysulfide (fuming liquor of Boyle) ( (NH4)2S).
Spiritus CC
Ammonium carbonate ( (NH4)2CO3).
Spiritus Nitri Coagulatus
Potassium nitrate (KNO3).
Spiritus Nitri Dulcis (Sweet spirit of Nitre)
Ethyl nitrite (C2H5NO2).
Spiritus Sal Ammoniacum
See Spirit of Sal Amomoniac.
Spiritus Salis Ammoniaci Cum Sale Alkali Parata
Ammonium carbonate ((NH4)2CO3).
Spiritus Salis Coagulatus
Potassium chloride (KCl).
Spiritus Sulphuris
See Spirit of Vitriol or Spirit of Sulphur
Spiritus Sulphuris Volatilus Beguinii
Ammonium polysulphide ((NH4)2S).
Spirit Veneris
Sulphuric acid (H2SO4).
Spiritus Vitrioli
See Spirit of Vitriol.
Spiritus Vitrioli Coagulatus
Potassium sulfate (K2SO4).
Sp. Mind.
See Spirit of mindererus
Any hollow projection from a vessel that is used to direct the liquid flow while pouring. This term was most commonly applied to the spout on an alembic.
Spuma Lupi
The minderal from which tungsten was extracted.
Stagnant Gas (Marsh Gas)
Methane (CH4).
Crushing of ores.
Stannum Anglici
Tin (Sn) from England.
Stannum Glaciale
Bismuth (Bi)
Starkey's Soap
Saponaceous substance from the reaction between potassium carbonate and essential oil of turpentine.
A mineral substance composed mostly of various forms of magnesium silicate, e.g., (Mg3Si4O11 . H2O).
Regarded as a form of iron which (a) contained a larger portion of the inflammable principle and (b) had fewer chemical impurities.
Stibiated Tarter
Potassium antimonyl tartrate (KSbC4H4O7).
Antimony sulfide (Sb2S3).
Stick Laque
See Lac.
Stinking Sulphureous Air
Hydrogen sulphide (H2S).
Stone of bologna
A variety of barium sulfate (BaSO4) that became phosphorescent when calcined.
Spirit of Niter "Besiardique"
Nitric acid added to "Butter of Antimony" and the mixture distilled to get a liquor which holds the "Regulus of Antimony" in solution.
Spirit of Nitre
Dilute nitric acid (HNO3).
Spirit of Ammoniac
Ammonia (NH3), or ammonium hydroxide solution (NH4OH).
Spirit of Salt
hydrochloric acid (HCl).
Spirit of Saturn
Impure acetone made from lead acetate (CH3COCH3).
Spirit of Sea-Salt
Hydrochloric acid (HCl).
Spirit of Sulfer
Mixture of sulfuric and sulfurous acids (H2SO4; H2SO3).
Spirit of Tatar
Potassium hydrogen tartrate (KHC4H4O6). Product of the dry distillation of crude tartar.
Spirit of Urine
Ammonium carbonate ((NH4)2CO3). Derived from an impure solution of ammonia obtained by the distillation of urine.
Spirit of Venus
Concentrated and relatively pure acetic acid (HC2H3O2).
Spirit of Verdigris
Acetic acid (HC2H3O2).
Spirit of Vinegar
Impure acetic acid obtained by distilling vinegar (HC2H3O2).
Spirit of Vitriol
Dilute sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and/ or sulfurous acid (H2SO3).
Strontium oxide (SrO).
Solid or concrete products of sublimation. Not powder.
A property possessed by some substances enabling their going directly from the solid to the gaseous state without passing through the liquid phase.
Subsatnia Ferrea Vitrioli
Ferric oxide (Fe2O3).
Any medicinal substance which promoted, or was believed to promote, sweating.
Sugar of (A Subtance)
Usually signifying an acetate (C2H3O2).
Sugar of Lead
Lead acetate (Pb(C2H3O2)2).
(a) As a "principle," in the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries the substantive causes of the properties of inflammablility, color, and odor; (b) in the doctrined of phlogiston, a compound composed of vitriolic (sulfuric) acid and the inflammable principle, "phlogiston."
Sulphur Album Fixum
Potassium nitrate (KNO3).
Sulphurated Iron
Ferrous sulphide (FeS).
Sulphur Minerale
Solid mineral sulphur (S).
Sulphur Of Antimony (Golden Sulphur of Antimony)
The orange sulfide of antimony, usually a mixture of the trisulfide (Sb2S3) with some of the pentasulfide (Sb2S5).
Sulphureous Salt of Stahl
Impure potassium sulfite (K2SO3).
Sulphureous Acid
Sulfurous acid (H2SO4).
Sulfides (S).
Sulphureum (Bergman)
Sulfurous acid (H2SO3).
Sulphurous Acid (Pre-Lavoisier)
Sulfuric acid (H2SO4).
Sulphur Vivum
Naturally occurring sulphur (S).
Superolefiant Gas (Dalton)
Butylene (C4H8).
Swedish Acid
Hydrofluoric acid (HF).
Sweetened Spirit of Salt
Ethyl chloride (C2H5Cl).
Sweet Mercury (Mercureous Dulis)
Mercurous chloride (Hg2Cl2).
Sweet Principle from oils and fats
Glycerol (HOCH2CHOHCH2OH).
Sweet Sublimate
Mercurous chloride (Hg2Cl2).
Sympathetic Ink
Any solution that is colorless but becomes dark (and thus visible) by heating, by addition of other chemicals, etc.
Syrup of Violets
A water extract of the petals of violets.
Syrupus Violatum
See Syrup of Violets.

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Tabasheer (Tabachir)
A white powder formed at the joints of bamboo shoots. Imported from the Orient and used as a medicinal.
A mixture of magnesium metasilicilate (Mg3H2(SiO4)3) with magnesium silicate (Mg3Si4O11 . H2O).
Talky Earths
(a) fibrous earths; (b) earths that suffer no change from the action of acids or fire; (c) earths that do not become viscid or hard when made into aqueous paste, e.g., asbestos.
Any astringent vegetable substance that can react with animal hyde and convert it to leather. The most common tannin was tannic acid extracted from oak-galls.
The dense, black, inflammable liquid or semisolid obtained from the distillation of various woods or coal. A complex mixture of hydrocarbons and organic compounds.
Potassium hydrogen tartrate (K4HC4H4O6).
Tartarated Alkali of Tartar
Potassium tartrate (K2C4H4O6).
Tarter Emetic (Stibiated Tartar)
potassium antimonyl tartrate (KSbC4H4O7).
Tartarified Iron
see Chalybs Tartar.
Tartarified Tincture of Iron
Ferrous tartrate solution (FeC4H4O6).
A term occasionally used for potassium carbonate (K2CO3).
Tartarized Tartar
Potassium tartrate (K2C4H4O6).
Tartarized Tincture of Mars
Not a true alcohol solution, this medicinal was dubbed a tincture largely because of its deep color. Probably iron tartrate (FeC4H4O6).
Tartarum Regeneratum (Regenerated Tartar)
Potassium acetate (KC2H3O3) for the most part, but also used for assorted potassium salts. Not very well defined.
Tartarum Solubus (Soluble Salt of Tartar)
Potassium tartrate (K2C4H4O6).
Tartarum Tartisatum
Potassium tartrate (K2C4H4O6).
Tartarum Vitriolatum (Vitriolated Tartar)
Potassium sulfate (K2SO4).
Tartarus Citratus
Potassium citrate (K3C6H5O7 . H2O).
Tartarus Nitratus
Potassium nitrate (KNO3.
Tartarus Tartarisatus
Potassium tartrate (K2C4H4O6).
Tartarus Vitriolatus
Potassium sulfate (K2SO4).
Tartre Stybie (Tartar Emetic)
Potassium antimonyl tartrate (KSbC4H4O7).
Tar Water
A solution of the water-soluble components of tar. Mostly alcohols and polar organic materials.
Tectum Argenti
Bismuth (Bi).
The resin from the terebinth tree Pistacia terebinthuis.
Impregnated with turpentine, having turpentine as a component, or just similar to turpentine.
The refined portion or the "spirit" of the resin from the terebinth and other trees having similar resins. Very similar to what we now call turpentine.
Terra Anglica Rubra
Ferric oxide (Fe2O3).
Terra Foliata Nitri
Potassium acetate (KC2H3O2).
Terra Foliata Tartari
See Regenerated Tartar.
Terra Foliata Tartari Crystallisabilis
Sodium acetate (NaC2H3O2).
Terra Foliata Secretissima
Solid potassium acetate (KC2H3O2)2.
Terra Francisca
Assorted sulfates (e.g., FeSO4, CuSO4)
Terra Molybdaenea
Molybdic acid (H2MoO4(H2).
Terra Ponderosa
Barium sulfate (BaSO4).
Terra Ponderosa Acetate
Barium acetate (Ba(C2H3O2)2).
Terra Ponderosa Aerata
Barium carbonate (BaCO3).
Terra Ponderosa Molybdaenata
Barium molybdate (BaMoO4).
Terra Foliee Animale
Ammonium acetate (NH4C2H3O2).
Terra Foliee Crystallisee
Sodium acetate (NaC2H3O2).
A large cupel used for refining substantial quantities of gold and silver by means of lead.
Testaceous Earths
Mineral solids that came from or were chemically similar to shells. Thus, "testaceous powders" were prepared from shells.
The operation of refining gold and silver by means of lead.
A general term for an antidote for the poison of a venomous snake.
Tincal (Tinkal)
Crude borax imported from India.
Tinct. Tartari
Solution of potassium hydroxide (KOH) in alcohol.
Tinctura Antimonii
See Tincture of Antimony.
A solution in which ethanol is the primary solvent. The term was applied most often to colored solutions.
Tincture of Antimony
A medicinal prepared from antimony metal and liver of suphur (potassium polysulfides).
Tincture of Coral
Crude acetone (CH3COCH3).
Tincture of Mars
A general term for various medicinal preparations involving iron salts. Common components included ferrous hydroxide and mixed tartrates and oxides.
Tincture of Mars of Mynsight
An alcohol solution in which the solute is primarily ferric chloride (FeCl3).
Bismuth (Bi).
When one substance tinges or slightly colors another.
Roasting of ores in the hope of removing impurities.
Tourmaline (Tourmalin, Ash-Stone)
A mineral solid consisting of various forms of silicoborate, including the black mineral "Schorl."
See Turnsol.
Salts which seemed to have three components rather than the usual two, e.g., alum (KAl (SO4)2 . 12H2O).
Tripoli (Infusoria Earth, Rotten-Stone)
A finely divided mineral solid used for polishing. Obtained from the shells of diatoms.
A vessel used for the separation of immisicible liquids. It was often shaped somewhat like two modern separatory funnels cut near their tops and fused together. Basically the same as a separating glass.
Mechanical breakdown or division of solid substances through grinding; e.g., with mortar and pestle, in a mill, etc.
See Trituration.
Naturally occurring sodium carbonate (Na2CO3). It usually had some bicarbonate (NaHCO3) in it as well.
Tubulated Retort
A retort which had a sealable opening in the top to allow addition or removal of material without changing the position of the retort.
Tung Spat
See Heavy Spar.
Tunsgten (Scheelite)
Native calcium tungstate (CaWO4)
A powder mad from the root of the imported East Indian plant Curcuna Longa.
Turners Yellow
Yellow lead oxychloride (PbCl2 . 3PbO).
Turnsol (e)
The bluish purple substance from the plant lichen Crozophora tinctoria. Used as an indicator. Synonymous with litmus.
A resinous liquid extracted from various trees. Originally the extract of the terebinith tree Distacia terebinthus.
Turpeth Mineral (Turbeth Mineral)
Basic mercuric sulphate (HgSO4 . 2HgO).
Tutenag (Chinese Copper)
A term occasionally applied to zinc (Zn). Also used for a white metal alloy (Chinese copper) which consisted primarily of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and nickel (Ni). Used to alloy silver in coins and jewelry items.
See Tutty.
Zinc oxide (ZnO).

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Any water, oozing matter like that in a swamp.
A mucilagenous substance from the inner bark of the elm.
A blue pigment mad from the gem mineral lapis lazuli. The relative composition of ultramarine is not fixed, but the largest component is a sodium aluminum silicate combined with sulphur.
A mineral solid which exists in a range of brown hues. Chemically, umber is mostly a mixture of hydrous ferric oxide (Fe2O . xH2O) and manganese dioxide (MnO2). It was believed by many in the eighteenth century to be a fossil wood originally found in Umbria near Spoleto in Italy.
Oily; i.e., viscous, adherent and lubricating.
Unctuous Oils
Oils that have little or no taste or odor but are relatively "oily"; i.e., are viscous, adherent, and lubricating.
Urinou Salts
Usually any ammonium salt. Sometimes any of the alkali carbonates.
The loss of volatile components of a substance without loss of texture or body. Cf. Calcination.

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Vague Acid of Mines
An aeriform fluid which was probably largely sulphur dioxide (SO2).
Rather loosely applied to any aeriform substance or phase. Perhaps the best eighteenth century definition was any aeriform substance that could be liquefied by cold.
Vapour of Arsenic
Aresenious oxide (As2O3)
A resin in solution. "Spirit" varnishes were resins dissolved in turpentine or alcohol. "Oil" varnishes were resins dissolved in linseed and/or other oils.
Vegetable Acid
Any acidic substance extracted from whole or fermented vegetable matter. Thus, the term was applied to acetic (CH3COOH), citric (C6H8O7), and tartaric (C4H6O6) acids, etc.
Vegetable Acid, Fermentative
Primarily acetic acid from vinegar (HC2H3O2).
Vegetative Acid, Native
Citric acid (C6H8O7)
Vegetable Alkali (Potash)
Potassium carbonate (K2CO3).
Vegetable Ammoniacal Salt
Solid ammonium acetate (NH4C2H3O2)
Vegetable Salt
See Tartarified Tartar or Soluble Tartar.
Venus (of Venus)
Usually suggested either copper or a compound of copper. Sometimes it simply indicated an acetate. (C2H3O2¯).
Verdigris (Verdigrise)
A basic copper acetate (Cu(C2H3O2)2 . 2Cu(OH)2). Long used as a green pigment.
Verditer (Blue Verditer; Blue Bice)
A blue pigment made from a basic copper carbonate (2CuCO3 . Cu(OH)2) which is chemically the same as azurite.
The red pigment made from cinnabar (mercuric sulfide, HgS). See Cinnabar.
Vine Black
A preparation of carbon from the twigs and wood of vines. Used as a black pigment.
Vinegar of Lead
Primarily lead acetate (Pb(C2H3O2)2).
Vital Air
Oxygen (O2)
Vitiated Air
Air from which oxygen has been removed, thus mainly nitrogen.
Vitresant (Vitrifiable)
Any solid that could be made into "glass".
Vitrifiable Earths (Vitreous Earths)
Mineral substances which fuse under the action of fire.
The chemical part of the process of making glass or of any high-temperature process which produced a glass-like substance.
Used mainly for ferrous sulfate (FeSO4), but a generic term for sulfates. As with many old terms, the usage varied; e.g., some used the term for nitrates of silver and copper.
Vitriol, Blue
Copper sulfate (CuSO4)
Vitriol, Green
Ferrous (or iron) sulfate (FeSO4)
Vitriol, White
Zinc sulfate (ZnSO4)
Vitriol (or Vitriolic) Acid
Sulphuric acid (H2SO4)
Vitriolated Earths, Metals, etc.
Vitriolated Ether
Diethyl ether (C4H10O).
Vitriolated Tartar
Potassium sulfate (K2SO4)
Vitriolic Ether
Diethyl ether (C4H10O).
Vitriol of Goslar (White Vitriol)
Zinc sulfate (ZnSO4)
Vitriol of Jove
Stannous sulfate (SnSO4)
Vitriol of Jupiter
Stannous acetate (Sn(C2H3O2)2)
Vitriol of Mars (Green Vitriol)
Ferrous sulfate (FeSO4)
Vitriol of Quick Silver
Mercuric nitrate (Hg(NO3)2)
Vitriol of Saturn
Lead acetate (Pb(C2H3O2))
Vitriol of Silver
Occasionally, early in the century, silver nitrate (AgNO3). As the century progressed, the term was more reasonably applied to silver sulfate (Ag2SO4)
Vitriol of Venus
Cupric sulfate (CuSO4)
Vitriolum Album
See White Vitriol.
Vitriolum Ammonium
Ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4)
Vitriolum Anglicum
Ferrous sulfate (FeSO4)
Vitriolum Veneris cum Alkali Fixo Praecipitatum
Basic copper acetate (Cu(C2H3O2)2 . CuO . 6 H2O)
Vitrium Antimonii (Glass of Antimony)
Fused antimony oxide (Sb2O3)
Vivifying Spirit
A hypothetical principle in the air which, according to some early eighteenth century chemists, was the active agent in combustion and respiration.
An adjective usually used to indicate not only that a substance naturally gave off some aeriform component (as indicated by an odor) but also that it decomposed easily and gave off one or more aeriform components to the air on heating.
Volatile Acid of Nitre
Nitrous acid (HNO2)
Volatile Acid of Sulfur (Phlogisticated Vitriolic Acid)
Sulfurous acid (H2SO3)
Volatile Alkali
A term most commonly used for solutions of ammonia; e.g., ammonium hydroxide.
Volatile Alkali in its Concrete Form
Ammonium carbonate (NH4CO3)
Volatile Liver of Sulfur
Volatile product from heating sulfur with quicklime and ammonium chloride.
Volatile Sal Ammoniac
Ammonium hydroxide solution.
Volatile Salt
Ammonium carbonate ((NH4)2CO3)
Volatile Salt of Amber
See Salt of Amber
Volatile Salt of Hartshorn
Ammonium carbonate (NH4CO3)
Volatile Spirit of Sal Ammoniac
Ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) obtained from quicklime (calcium oxide) and sal ammoniac (ammonium chloride).
Volatile Spirit of Sulfur
The aeriform product from burning sulfur; mostly sulfur dioxide
Volatile Vitriol of Venus
Copper acetate Cu(C2H3O2)2

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Any fermented mixture which, after distillation, would produce distilled spirits (ethanol CH3CH2OH, with impurities).
Water gas
Mixture of hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO)
Water of Minderus
A solution of ammonium acetate (NH4C2H3O2).
Water of Rabel
A solution of ethyl ether (CH3CH2OCH2CH3) in ethanol (CH3CH2OH)
A term referring to beeswax only, as the hydrocarbon waxes were not available in the eighteenth century.
The liquid which remains after milk is curdled, usually in the process of cheese-making
White Arsenic
Arsenious oxide (As2O3)
White Calx of Antimony
Mixture of antimony oxide (Sb2O3) and potassium oxide (K2O).
White Copper
An alloy of arsenic (As), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn).
White Copperas
Zinc sulphate (ZnSO4)
White Lead
Basic lead carbonate (Pb(CO3)2 . Pb (OH)2)
White Manganese
Manganous carbonate (MnCO3)
White Precipitated Mercury (Precipitate of Sublimate of Mercury)
Mercurammonium chloride (HgNH2Cl)
White Vitriol
Zinc sulphate (ZnSO4)
Wind Furnace
A reverberating furnace.
Often used more broadly by eighteenth-century chemists to include any potable liquid which had become "spiritous" through fermentation; e.g., beer, cider, and mead.
Barium carbonate (BaCO3).
A blue dye prepared from the leaves of the plant Isatis tinctoria.
A mineral substance Spumi lupi that was under investigation in the 18th century.
Wood Ash
Potassum carbonate (K2CO3)
A long, coiled tube, usually of copper, attached to the head of a distillation apparatus for the purpose of increasing condensation. A worm commonly was used in ditilling spirits.
The plant Artemisia absinthium, the leaves of which were used to make an extract by distillation. Used as a medicinal.
An infusion of grain, usually malt, which was fermented to produce beer.
Woulfe Bottle
A bottle with two or more necked orifices that was used in distillation.

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A yellow coloring agent produced by treating indigo with dilute nitric acid. This substance proved to be unstable and seldom was used as dye.
Yellow Aqua Fortis
Concentrated nitric acid (HNO3).
Yellow Arsenic
Arsenious sulphide (As2S3).
Yellow Ochre
Hydrated ferric oxide (Fe2O3 . H2O).
A mixture of rare earth elements from the mineral gadolinite. Primarily the trioxide of yttrium (Y2O3).

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Zaffre (Saffre)
A gray or reddish powder composed mostly of cobalt oxide (CaO).
A group of mineral solids which are various hydrated silicates, primarily of aluminum, calcium, potassium, and sodium. Although not really related, they share the property of swelling and "boiling" under the heat of the blowpipe.
Zinc (Zinco, Zinetum)
Regarded in the eighteenth century as a semi-metal because of its relative brittleness.